human papilloma virus

human papilloma virus

From warts to cancer. What are papillomas and why are they dangerous?

Papillomavirus (human papillomavirus - HPV) is a disease caused by a viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes.

The virus manifests in the form of warts of various shapes, papillomas, condyloma acuminatum. Tumors consist of nodules that resemble cauliflower inflorescences or celosias. Cutaneous papillomas can be very small (up to 1 mm) or very large (up to 2 cm). At the beginning of its development, the formation is flesh-colored, but over time it turns brown. Most often, warts appear on the neck, groin folds, armpits, elbows, knees, head, and around the eyes. Additionally, growths may be in inconspicuous places, such as on the cervix, vagina, external genitalia.


The disease has been known since ancient Greece. To date, statistics show that only one in 10 people is not a carrier of any type of HPV.

To determine the type of virus you have, you will need to see a doctor and pass the necessary tests.

route of infection

Papillomaviruses require special conditions to penetrate the body. Infection occurs from person to person through direct contact. The greatest risk of transmission is through sexual contact, as the alkaline environment is favorable for the virus and there are often microcracks on the genitals.

In daily life, it is more difficult to get infected with papilloma virus, but if sick and healthy people use the same bath towels and towels, there is a risk of spreading the virus. Personal hygiene and precautions should always be observed if someone in the household has HPV.

The only manifestations of papillomavirus are genital warts and flat papules, although there may be no overt viral manifestations.

risk factor

What to do if. . .

. . . If you accidentally damage or pull out the tumor, treat the wound with an antiseptic (bright green, alcohol solution). For the first 2-3 days, don't bother her with the water routine and don't cover it with a band-aid.

. . . if the growth bleeds, is painful, increases in size - you need urgent specialist help.

Human papillomavirus is a risk factor for cancer development. First - cervical cancer, as well as external genitalia.

But infection with papilloma does not necessarily lead to cancer. Viruses with low cancer risk - these are subtypes 6, 11, 42, 43, 44 (more commonly they appear as sharp growths - genital warts). Subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33 - with a high risk of cancer, they form flat papules - warts. But it takes an average of 10-20 years from infection to malignant degeneration of cells.

Smoking, alcoholism, obesity, and hormonal imbalances that reduce immunity can accelerate the pathological process. Sometimes, a virus that has been dormant in the body for years suddenly wakes up from sleep.

Papillomas are driven to devastating changes by sexually transmitted infections: cytomegalovirus, genital herpes, chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis.

In addition, mediocre inaccuracy can also be a risk factor. Papillomas in the armpits, neck, and face are often injured and then bleed and become inflamed.

Frequent trauma of papillomas may lead to their regression into malignant tumors.

If you have large papillomas on your body that you touch frequently, this is a direct indication to remove them.

Importance and effectiveness of vaccination

Getting the papillomavirus vaccine is important for preventing cancer and genital warts in both men and women. In addition, vaccines can prevent precancerous lesions.

Getting the papillomavirus vaccine reduces the risk of various diseases:

  • cervical cancer- Special vaccines 4 reduce the risk of disease by about 70%, and vaccines 9 approved for use in Israel since school year 5780 (2019-2020) reduce the risk of disease by about 90%.
  • vaginal cancer– Reduces disease risk by approximately 96%.
  • penile cancer– Reduces disease risk by approximately 99%.
  • rectal cancer- Reduces disease risk by approximately 77%.
  • warts on genitalsIn Australia, the vaccine reduced incidence by about 92% in girls under 21 and about 89% in boys aged 16-26.
  • The vaccine also prevents the formation of warts on the genitals and throat, which appear shortly after infection.

Duration of protection provided by the vaccine

Vaccinations are valid for at least 15 years, the length of time that has elapsed since the vaccine was first used. Research shows that women who were vaccinated 15 years ago still have some level of antibodies that protect against the virus. Experts predict that the vaccine will provide protection for years to come; possibly a lifetime.

inoculation process

Vaccination against papillomavirus is given by intramuscular injections into the shoulder area in 2 or 3 doses for 6 months.

The HPV vaccine is recommended for boys and girls ages 9 to 26.
In special cases, the vaccine may be given to men and women aged 27-45 on the advice of the attending physician.

It is important to get vaccinated at school age:

  • The vaccine does not cure disease caused by infections that occurred before vaccination, so it is important to get vaccinated before the risk of infection arises.
  • Papilloma virus can be contracted during first sexual contact, so it is important to get vaccinated before sexual activity begins.
  • Vaccination at school age results in the best immune response compared to vaccination at an older age.

Get the HPV Papillomavirus vaccine as part of a school vaccination program

  • Beginning in the 2019-2020 school year, boys and girls in Year 8 of the school will be vaccinated against the number 9 vaccine in two doses, spaced 6 months apart.
  • Vaccinations have been given in the past few years: From the 2015-2016 school year to the 2018-2019 school year, boys and girls were vaccinated in grade 8 of the school4. In the 2014-2015 school year, girls were vaccinated in grade 8 of the school4. In the 2013-2014 school year, girls were vaccinated with Cervarix in Year 8 of the school, and girls in Year 9 were vaccinated with Cervarix at the Health Department.

Vaccinations for boys

Vaccination is recommended for boys, not just girls, for the same reasons that girls are vaccinated:

  1. Protecting girls and boys from virus-caused cancer and genital warts
  2. To prevent the spread of the virus from person to person

Vaccinations for children not vaccinated at school

We recommend that children who have not been vaccinated at school get the HPV vaccine.

The Ministry of Health recommends that girls born in 1999 or later and boys born in 2002 or later who have not completed a full vaccination course be vaccinated.

  • 9th graders- Health care providers will vaccinate students free of charge at the place of residence.
  • Year 10 and above students under the age of 18– Vaccinations will be carried out free of charge at the Health Department of the Ministry of Health in the place of residence.
  • 18+– You can pay for vaccinations in the health insurance fund.

Children who received only one dose of the vaccine in grade 8 should receive a second dose at least six months later.

Children who received two doses in 8th grade in less than five months should receive a third dose at least 12 weeks after the second dose.

From grades 9 and up, unvaccinated children are vaccinated with three doses (instead of two because responses to the vaccine are better at a young age). The recommended time interval between the first part and the second part is one to two months, and the recommended time interval between the second part and the third part is five months.

The vaccine is recommended for adults under the age of 26.

Adults who have received a single dose of the vaccine in the past should receive a supplemental dose based on age at the time of vaccination.

Not to be given at the same time as other vaccines.

There is no need to check for HPV infection before vaccination.

Vaccine Safety

HPV vaccines contain only the empty shell of the virus, not the genetic material (DNA) of the virus - so they are safe and there is no chance of contracting HPV papillomavirus during vaccination.