How HPV is spread from person to person and how you can get infected

HPV carriers may not know they are infected. Symptoms do not appear immediately, only in the form of differently located papillomas:

  1. vulgar. They appear as small hard lumps about 1 cm in diameter, most commonly on the hands.
  2. Filamentous. Yellow cone-shaped seal pups frequently change and grow.
  3. Plantar warts. Often confused with calluses.
  4. flat. Itching before presentation, similar to the presentation of allergies. Then they become round and light.
  5. Acuminate warts. They are found in intimate places, on mucous membranes.

In women with genital formation, accompanying signs may appear:

  • hot;
  • itching;
  • Violation of the cycle;
  • Pain, blood at the tumor site.

In men, HPV rarely manifests as genital warts, which are carriers of the disease.

Papillomavirus 18 blood test (16)

HPV blood tests in developed countries are used to detect carriers and patients on a large scale. The reliability of cytological diagnosis is as high as 95%. DNA testing in the U. S. is for the following indications:

  • In women over 30, as a screening test;
  • Identify questionable research findings;
  • in the absence of a screening program;
  • For the control of cervical cancer after resection.
papilloma on the neck

List of diagnostic procedures to detect papillomavirus:

  1. Cytology, combined with the Digene test, can determine clinically significant concentrations of the virus in the blood;
  2. Urology, gynecological examination - detection of condyloma acuminatum, condyloma acuminatum;
  3. Histological examination of a piece of tissue after a gynecological or urological examination.

The main task of papillomavirus diagnosis is to detect precancerous lesions. Colposcopy and cytology are the most common and affordable methods of diagnosing the disease.

transfer method

Among the mechanisms by which you may be infected are:

  • touch;
  • Vertical (from mother to child during labor).

The contact mechanism is implemented through sex and contact with the family. Therefore, HPV can be spread by:

  • handshake and kiss;
  • using other people's hygiene products, including razors, towels, soaps, towels and cosmetics;
  • wearing clothing belonging to an infected person;
  • Visit the public baths, saunas and swimming pools.

The cancer-causing type of the virus is sexually transmitted. In people with mixed partners, the risk of infection increases many-fold. The more frequently they change, the higher the chance of infection, and you can't be sure of your own safety even with a condom.

You can also contract homosexual relationships because they are characterized by epithelial and mucous membrane injuries. Condoms also don't really help in this situation. The presence of warts on the body of a sexual partner also predicts the possibility of acquiring HPV through microtrauma on the body.

Pregnant women who are HPV carriers should be aware of the possibility of infecting their baby as it passes through the birth canal.

Infection occurs only in the presence of characteristic growths in the genital area and cervix. Meanwhile, papillomavirus infections in children manifest as growths in the larynx, which are particularly dangerous. Babies can have trouble breathing, have trouble eating, and even choke.

First, it's worth mentioning that papillomas are spread through the epidermis and saliva. At the same time, the infection may not be felt for a while and manifest itself as the formation of genital warts and papillomas, just with decreased immunity. If we talk about how papillomavirus spreads, then if there are lesions, scratches and abrasions on the skin, the possibility of infection is greatly increased.

attention! Many people are interested in whether papillomas are genetic. The answer is no. Papillomavirus can be passed from mother to baby in the home or during childbirth as soon as one of the family members becomes infected.

There is an opinion that HPV is usually transmitted through sexual contact. This is true, but there are other routes of infection. Human papillomavirus has an incubation period of up to 10 years. Papillomas on the body can form from a simple touch or from another person's saliva.

There are more than one hundred HPV types, most of which are spread through close contact of all kinds.


HPV is sexually transmitted. This cause is considered the most common and insidious, as girls and boys are often unaware that there is an infection in the blood. Popular protection methods cannot provide 100% virus protection, especially if it is not a barrier method.

Condoms offer little protection against HPV. It all depends on the type of infection and the person's immune system.

HPV can affect the skin anywhere on the body. Papillomas are usually sexually transmitted.

Infection can even occur through condoms. This is because the virus lives on superficial tissues and easily colonizes the mucosa.

In the presence of microwear, the virus enters the bloodstream and begins its destructive work. Genital warts or cauliflower-like tumors develop on the mucous tissue of the genitals due to infection.

Men often infect their partners in intimate relationships. They have stronger immune systems and rarely show obvious signs of infection. If they have multiple sexual encounters with unfamiliar women, they may act as carriers of the virus for a period of time. Papillomavirus can pass from female to male if the sexual partner has a weakened immune system.

People with natural immunity to the virus can come into contact with warts, have sex with sick people, and stay healthy. In some cases, one partner tested positive for HPV and the other was negative, even though they had lived together for a long time.

Other routes of infection

Home-based methods of infection are common, as is the possibility of infection during sexual intercourse.

The virus can spread while swimming in contaminated water, outdoor or indoor pools. You can see peculiar growths on the body some time after visiting a bathroom or sauna that an infected person has visited.

HPV is transmitted intrapartum or through the placenta. Each method carries a certain risk of infection.

Studies have shown that a caesarean section increases the likelihood of contracting the human papillomavirus. The risk of infection does not change in a woman's natural or artificial birth.

The recurrent course of respiratory papillomatosis is caused by the presence of several pathogens - 68, 59, 56, 52, 51, 45, 39, 35, 33, 31, 18, 16. The carcinogenicity of serotypes differs in the ability of each type to determine the number of intracellular divisions.

HPV is spread through sexual contact

Through sexual intercourse, HPV is spread as a sexually transmitted infection. After the blood of a carrier or infected person comes into contact with the blood of a donor (through erosion, cracks in the reproductive organs), viral particles enter the blood. Clinical symptoms are developed according to the serotype of the virus:

  • HPV types 63, 1, 4, 2 induce plantar warts vulgaris;
  • Flat warts - 75, 41, 28, 49. 10, 3;
  • Epidermodysplasia verruciformis has been observed in patients with papillomatosis caused by serotypes 11 or 6.

According to scientists, there are many more papillomaviruses that have yet to be checked. Carcinogenic representatives have been carefully studied in humans, which makes it possible to effectively protect women from cervical cancer.

The mechanism of domestic infection of papillomavirus

Human papillomavirus is a highly contagious virus, and according to statistics, 50% to 70% of the population is infected with it. However, clinical manifestations of infection are uncommon, accounting for approximately 1-2%. A person does not even realize that he is a carrier of HPV until immunity declines and the virus activates. By understanding the main ways HPV is spread, you can protect yourself from bad symptoms. So, HPV - how does the disease spread? All possible transmission paths are discussed below.

Papilloma: How does it spread and what is it?

Currently, about 100 different viruses are known. Among them, there are both harmless to humans and dangerous to the development of cancer.

The fact that the viruses that cause warts and papillomas are among subtypes 6 and 11 with a low risk of cancer may be encouraging. Oncogenic subtypes include strains 16 and 18 that cause cellular mutations and cervical cancer.

Papillomaviruses multiply only in skin and mucosal cells, causing them to divide uncontrollably. As a result, a person has the following clinical manifestations:

  • Various warts (common, flat, plantar);
  • genital warts;
  • Oral and throat papillomatosis;
  • Papilloma of internal organs.

The role of the virus in the development of cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men has been demonstrated, so it is important to understand how papillomaviruses spread to prevent infection.

Human papillomavirus: routes of transmission

If there are no characteristic growths on the skin or mucous membranes, it is impossible to test for the presence of the virus in the body on its own. Specialized medical tests will allow the identification of sleep pathology. The absence of symptoms does not guarantee that a person is not dangerous to others.

How is papillomavirus (HPV) spread? Doctors distinguish several ways.

contact details

HPV is spread through families. It is worth noting that this option to acquire human papillomavirus infection (PVI) is few, but still entitled.

You can get it by shaking hands, using common household items—towels, slippers, wearing someone else’s clothes, especially underwear. Infections often occur when visiting swimming pools and fitness centers.

The microscopic organism is so active that HPV is spread through saliva, a kiss.

The risk of infection increases if the skin has abrasions, scratches, microcracks, and various wounds. Particularly contagious are those with the characteristic manifestations of the disease - warts and papillomas.

A fairly common question: Does frequent hand washing reduce the risk of infection? Of course, clean skin is more protected. However, hygiene measures do not prevent infection with papillomavirus.

Is papillomavirus (HPV) sexually transmitted?

A single contact is enough to infect a person. HPV is spread through oral, vaginal, and anal sex.

More commonly, the infection is from a male, but the opposite can also occur, with a documented reverse infection of HPV - from female to male.

Predisposing factors are:

  • Early intimacy at a young age;
  • Change sexual partners frequently, as do not forget that papillomavirus is sexually transmitted;
  • Condyloma acuminatum is present on the genitals.

Papillomas are also sexually transmitted through gay relationships, during which minor damage to the skin and mucous membranes in the anal area occurs. This significantly increases the risk of infection, especially if one of the partners has an external manifestation of the disease - anogenital warts.

Is human papillomavirus spread through protected sex? Unfortunately. HPV is spread through condoms because warts that are invisible to the naked eye can be located in the groin area that is not protected by the product.

Using a condom can greatly reduce the risk of infection, but it does not guarantee safety. Nonetheless, condom use is recommended for all people with multiple sexual partners.

HPV is easily spread through oral sex. This can increase the risk of developing tonsil cancer, especially if a person is infected with a cancer-causing strain.

Papillomavirus: Mother-to-child transmission (vertical approach)

Many pregnant women worry - can HPV be transmitted from mother to child? Unfortunately, this route of infection does occur, and infection can occur through the placenta (in the prenatal period) and during labor.

If the first option is very rare, there is a good chance that the child will contract papillomavirus when the baby passes through the infected birth canal.

The larynx, bronchi, and trachea may become infected in neonates. The virus is introduced into the mucosa and stimulates the formation of growths. Laryngeal papillomatosis can cause stenosis and choking in children, especially if the vocal cords are affected. Any infection, cold can cause swelling of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, and in the case of papilloma, this can cause difficulty in inhaling and exhaling.

Papillomavirus infection (PVI) belongs to the group of anthropogenic pathogens (transmitted only from person to person). If we're talking about how you get papillomavirus (HPV), it's mainly through sexual contact with an infected partner. In addition, the virus can remain active in dead skin cells for a relatively short period of time, so in some cases, HPV infection is run at home. Now learn more about how to get HPV and what methods of infection exist.

Infectious papilloma disease

First, it is necessary to answer the question: "Is papilloma contagious? " No doubt. The appearance of warts requires complex treatment, including not only the removal of the morphology, but also the necessary medication.

Is latent HPV contagious? Another frequently asked question by patients. The answer will also be yes. It's worth knowing that even protective sex isn't a complete guarantee against infection. The virus may be located on the groin and genital surfaces and is not protected by condoms.

Human Papillomavirus: Sexually Transmitted Infection

The main way papilloma is spread is through sexual intercourse with an infected partner. This type of transmission is typical for most virus species with high oncogenic activity.

Men and women who promiscuously have sex with selective partners are at particularly high risk of developing the disorder. People with homosexual orientation should also be included in the risk group. The practice of anal sex is accompanied by trauma to the skin and mucous membranes, which greatly facilitates the process of introducing HPV DNA into the body.

People often take the growths on the skin as harmless and treat them with folk methods. This mistake can have dangerous consequences—abnormal growth of epithelial tissue can exacerbate the spread of papillomavirus throughout the body, and some strains of it can cause mutations in cells that can lead to various types of cancer.

More than 80% of the world's population, regardless of age or race, are carriers of HPV.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common disease that leaves both children and adults unprotected. Getting this infection is very simple because its cells are all around us and remain viable for long periods of time without a carrier.

Furthermore, it can subtly settle in the body until it becomes apparent at a certain point. All the while, infected people are carriers of the disease, which is why HPV can spread to people who happen to be near it and to its family members.

Papillomaviruses - an enabler of oncology

Almost every third of people have some small growths that at first seem innocuous and innocuous. When such tumors are discovered, the patient's first reaction is to tear or remove them using folk methods.

In fact, these actions often cause irreparable damage to health, as inappropriate removal of papillomas causes active proliferation of epithelial tissue. This is what causes HPV to spread rapidly in the body, and in some cases even cause skin cells to mutate and then degenerate into cancerous tumors.

To date, scientists have classified all types of papillomaviruses into three categories:

  • safe;
  • low carcinogenicity;
  • Highly carcinogenic.

One of the characteristics of HPV is that it is not a sexually transmitted disease in the usual sense. The sexual route is just one of several routes of infection, far from being the main route. That's why condoms don't always protect against HPV.

We propose to figure out what methods of transmission of the virus exist, how infection occurs and whether it can be avoided.

In total, there are about 130 HPV types that are medically known. Only about 40 of them affect the genitals. For most of the 40 types, sexual transmission is the main one, but research shows it's not the only one.

HPV Prevention

There are many precautions, so it is very likely that HPV infection will not enter the body.

  • All damage to the skin should be treated with an antiseptic;
  • use only personal hygiene products;
  • In public saunas, baths and swimming pools, slippers made of rubber must be used;
  • Any disease must be treated promptly;
  • Loyalty to a trusted sexual partner;
  • Use a condom for any sexual intercourse. While this is not guaranteed to be safe, it is less likely that papillomavirus will enter both women and men through condoms;
  • exercise regularly;
  • hardening of the body;
  • Stick to sleep and nutrition.

Such precautions should be taken to avoid not only getting HPV, but also other sexually transmitted infections. Condoms provide protection against infection with many of the diseases that cause the HPV virus to activate.

If the virus and its manifestations in the genital area are present in the pregnant woman, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive examination and excision of such tumors. If there is a papilloma on the genitals, a cesarean section is recommended for women to prevent the baby from becoming infected as it passes through the birth canal.

There is a special vaccine against the highly carcinogenic strain of the virus, which is mainly recommended for women and adolescents under the age of 26. Even in the case of HPV carriers themselves being vaccinated, their immunity is significantly improved, and the virus enters an inactive phase.

At the same time, it must be taken into account that the virus does not disappear from the body and, therefore, the person remains a carrier of the infection. For safety reasons, he needs to use a condom during sex and only uses personal hygiene products.

We've figured out how HPV is transmitted (women, men and children), and now it's time to consider preventive measures. It should be said right away that the most effective way to avoid infection is preventive vaccination.

To date, two vaccines against this infection are known. They protect against the most dangerous carcinogenic strains of viral infections.

However, the high efficacy of this protection was only observed when vaccinated at infancy, before sexual activity, or before infection with one HPV strain.

In order not to get HPV, you need to follow some simple rules to help you avoid other, more serious health problems:

  • Be careful when choosing a partner - avoid casual contact;
  • Follow personal hygiene rules - wash your hands often, especially after visiting public places;
  • Boost your immunity - if possible, avoid stress and overwork;
  • Vaccination - The vaccine came out relatively late, in 2006.

Even if you study how HPV is transmitted, and follow all the rules of prevention, it's impossible to completely protect yourself from HPV infection. If you have been in contact with a sick person and you are concerned about spreading the virus, you can do a blood PCR test. This way you will get a solid answer. However, it should be noted that if there are no characteristic clinical manifestations, HPV does not require treatment.